Chapter Three - Observation of Posture and Movement

The position in which someone holds their body when standing or sitting.

Good posture refers to the "three natural curves [that] are present in a healthy spine.". It is also called neutral spine. Looking directly at the front or back of the body, the 33 vertebrae in the spinal column should appear completely vertical.

COG: Centre of Gravity in the Human Body.

In the anatomical position, the COG lies approximately anterior to the second sacral vertebra. However, since human beings do not remain fixed in the anatomical position, the precise location of the COG changes constantly with every new position of the body and limbs.

Center of gravity is imaginary balancing point where the body weight can be assumed to be concentrated and equally distributed. Can also be called Center of mass.

The line of gravity is an imaginary vertical line from the centre of gravity to the ground or surface the object or person is on. It is the direction that gravity is acting upon the person or object. ... The location of this line in relation to the base of support has a huge influence on balance and stability.

The base of support (BOS) refers to the area beneath an object or person that includes every point of contact that the object or person makes with the supporting surface. These points of contact may be body parts e.g. feet or hands, or they may include things like crutches or the chair a person is sitting in. An increase in BOS increases the stability of a position whilst the decrease in BOS destabilises the starting position.

As mentioned before, the spine has a natural curve. It has two curves forming an “S” like shape. When you have flat back syndrome the spine loses the lower curve and becomes flat. This causes the spine to become imbalanced and the patient tends to lean forward.

Kyphosis is a common condition that results in forward rounding of your upper back region. This causes your spine to hunch over and make you appear to be slouching or have a hunchback. Kyphosis can be seen at any age but is most commonly seen in older women after osteoporosis weakens the bones in the spine.

Information about the mechanics of the musculo-skeletal system during the execution of a motor task.

Joint kinematics is the study of the relative motion between two consecutive segments of the human body.

Body segments are linked to each other at the joints. The joint structure determines the types of joint motions allowed at the joint. Joint motion is actually the relative motion of the distal segment to the proximal that together form a joint. Analytically speaking, it is advantageous to view joint motions as the relative motions between the rigid bodies.

“Physiotherapists (PT) assess, plan and implement. rehabilitative programs that improve or restore human motor functions, maximize movement ability, relieve pain syndromes, and treat or prevent physical challenges associated with injuries, diseases and other impairments” - WHO